韩晓增,邹文秀.我国东北黑土地保护与肥力提升的成效与建议[J].中国科学院院刊,2018,(2):206-212.

我国东北黑土地保护与肥力提升的成效与建议

Effects and Suggestions of Black Soil Protection and Soil Fertility Increase in Northeast China
作者
韩晓增
中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 哈尔滨 150081
HAN Xiaozeng
Northeast Institute of Agroecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China
邹文秀
中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 哈尔滨 150081
ZOU Wenxiu
Northeast Institute of Agroecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China
中文关键词
         东北黑土保护;现状与问题;肥力提升;成效与建议
英文关键词
        black soil protection;status and problems;fertility increase;effect and suggestions
中文摘要
        我国东北黑土地是世界上最肥沃的土壤,土壤环境质量良好,适合优质农产品生产。黑土地开垦时间约200年,但是土壤肥力发生了巨大变化。开垦后大约经历了30年有机质含量快速下降期,使土壤中氮、磷和钾的比例更适合作物生长且肥力不断的提高;此后,土壤有机质呈现缓慢下降的趋势,土壤肥力也随之下降,这部分土壤有机质流失导致了黑土地退化。政府先后采取了多项黑土保护措施,获得了初步成效。建议进一步深化黑土地的科学技术研究;强化黑土保护政策的可持续性;建立可靠的野外监测网络,积累有价值的基础数据;实行黑土地保护的科技-管理-生产三位一体方式,实现全民保护黑土地。
英文摘要
        Black soil region in Northeast China is one of the best fertile soil regions, with sound quality soil environment, which favorites agricultural productions. Soil fertility has been changed a lot after black soil has been utilized as farmland for about 200 years. Soil fertility was enhanced in the early period of black soil being reclaimed due to the occurrence of suitable ratio among nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium, though soil organic carbon (SOC) decreased. Soil fertility was decreased as soil organic carbon decreased after 30 years that black soil had been reclaimed, which resulted in black soil degradation. Chinese government has taken many measures to protect black soil and significantly effect has been observed. Therefore, it is suggested that the research related to black soil protection should be carried on thoroughly, and accompanied policy for black soil protection should be strengthened with sustainability. It is also recommended to establish field observation stations to obtain valuable data, implement the integrated system of technology, management, and production for black soil protection management, finally to realize the overall black soil protection.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2018.02.011
作者简介
韩晓增 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所研究员。主要从事黑土地保护研究与示范。Pedosphere和《土壤与作物》编委,中国土壤学会理事;享受国务院政府特殊津贴。E-mail:xzhan@iga.ac.cn
HAN Xiaozeng Professor in Northeast Institute of Agroecology and Geography,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),he services as editor for Pedosphere,Soil and Crop,board member of the Soil Science Society of China,and enjoys the special subsidy from the State Council.His current research interests include black soil protection and sustainable development.E-mail:xzhan@iga.ac.cn
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