刘晓雨,卞荣军,陆海飞,郑聚锋,程琨,李恋卿,张旭辉,潘根兴.生物质炭与土壤可持续管理:从土壤问题到生物质产业[J].中国科学院院刊,2018,(2):184-190.

生物质炭与土壤可持续管理:从土壤问题到生物质产业

Biochar for Sustainable Soil Management: Biomass Technology and Industry from Soil Perspectives
作者
刘晓雨
南京农业大学 农业资源与生态环境研究所 南京 210095;南京农业大学 三聚农业生物质工程中心 南京 210095
LIU Xiaoyu
Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;Center of Biomass and Green Engineering Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
卞荣军
南京农业大学 农业资源与生态环境研究所 南京 210095;南京农业大学 三聚农业生物质工程中心 南京 210095
BIAN Rongjun
Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;Center of Biomass and Green Engineering Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
陆海飞
南京农业大学 农业资源与生态环境研究所 南京 210095;南京农业大学 三聚农业生物质工程中心 南京 210095
LU Haifei
Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;Center of Biomass and Green Engineering Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
郑聚锋
南京农业大学 农业资源与生态环境研究所 南京 210095;南京农业大学 三聚农业生物质工程中心 南京 210095
ZHENG Jufeng
Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;Center of Biomass and Green Engineering Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
程琨
南京农业大学 农业资源与生态环境研究所 南京 210095;南京农业大学 三聚农业生物质工程中心 南京 210095
CHENG Kun
Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;Center of Biomass and Green Engineering Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
李恋卿
南京农业大学 农业资源与生态环境研究所 南京 210095;南京农业大学 三聚农业生物质工程中心 南京 210095
LI Lianqing
Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;Center of Biomass and Green Engineering Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
张旭辉
南京农业大学 农业资源与生态环境研究所 南京 210095;南京农业大学 三聚农业生物质工程中心 南京 210095
ZHANG Xuhui
Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;Center of Biomass and Green Engineering Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
潘根兴
南京农业大学 农业资源与生态环境研究所 南京 210095;南京农业大学 三聚农业生物质工程中心 南京 210095
PAN Genxing
Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;Center of Biomass and Green Engineering Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
中文关键词
         生物质热解;生物质炭;炭基肥;土壤改良
英文关键词
        biomass pyrolyzing;biochar;biochar based fertilizer;soil improvement
中文摘要
        南美洲古老农业文明孕育的暗色肥沃土壤引发了全球生物质炭研究热潮。将农业生产过程中产生的有机废弃物经过低温热裂解技术转化为生物质炭并施用于农田土壤中,是一种新的土壤可持续管理途径,且服务于生物质废弃物治理与生态农业。我国生物质炭工业化生产技术及炭基肥制备与施用技术已经形成,土壤增碳与农业增产、减肥、增效潜力显著。大规模生物质炭工业化生产的推广催生了一个新兴的科技领域——生物质科技与工程。该科技服务于中国巨大的生物质废弃物治理和土壤改良、化肥减量及绿色农业等需求,这一学科领域尚待系统整合和提升。文章提出,研究生物质炭的有机质组分、结构、性质与功能的表征与有机质-矿物-微生物相互作用的基础研究是未来土壤可持续管理中的重要研究方向。这些问题将揭示生物质炭对于农业生命的系统健康及绿色农业的巨大价值,也进一步彰显了土壤学服务于中国农业可持续管理与生物质产业融合的巨大价值。
英文摘要
        Understanding of the dark fertile soil named "Terra Preta" from the ancient Amazonian agriculture has led to a global trend of an emerging science of biochar since the early 2000's. It has been well accepted as an approach for soil sustainable management by producing biochar via pyrolysis of agro-wastes and amending it into agricultural soils. It is a new way of organic wastes treatment and soil fertility improvement. With the development of large scaled industrial system of biochar from pyrolysis and biochar-based fertilizers manufacture, it has become an ample opportunity to enhance soil carbon stock, save chemical fertilizer, increase yield, and improve resource use efficiency in China's agriculture. Consequently, an emerging area of biochar science, technology, and engineering based on biomass carbonization, serving for the treatment of huge amount of bio-wastes and soil improvements and chemicals reduction in green agriculture. To promote the development of such a new paradigm, there has been urgent needs to investigate the components, structure, property, and functions of organic matter of biomass and biochar, the char-soil-plant-microbial interactions in croplands. Such issues are very critical for in depth understanding the system resistance enhanced with biochar and the products in agriculture. Meanwhile, there could be a great opportunity for soil science to serve for sustainable management of soils and of bio-waste treatment in agriculture of China.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2018.02.008
作者简介
刘晓雨 南京农业大学讲师。2008年毕业于南京农业大学农业资源与环境专业获得学士学位;2013毕业于南京农业大学土壤学专业获得博士学位。主要研究方向为生物质炭农业应用评价。E-mail:xiaoyuliu@njau.edu.cn
LIU Xiaoyu Lecturer of Nanjing Agricultural University.His research interests are the evaluation of biochar soil amendment on soil fertility,crop productivity,and greenhouse gases emission.He received his B.S.and Ph.D.degrees from Nanjing Agricultural University in 2008 and 2013,respectively.E-mail:xiaoyuliu@njau.edu.cn
潘根兴 南京农业大学教授,土壤学国家重点学科首席教授。长期从事土壤有机质与固碳减排、农业与气候变化、秸秆生物质炭科学技术等方面研究与技术发展。现任南京农业大学农业资源与生态环境研究所所长,南京农业大学生物质炭绿色农业中心主任。曾任国务院学科评议组第四、第五届和第六届农业资源环境一级学科召集人。联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)第五次评估报告温室气体清单-湿地补充文本第二章主持。兼任国家湿地科学技术委员会委员,国家环境地球化学重点实验室学术委员。欧盟生物质炭项目国际专家、联合国环境署生物质炭可持续土壤治理项目中国专家。国际土壤有机质大会科学指导委员会委员,国际固体废弃物管理大会科学委员会委员。E-mail:pangenxing@aliyun.com
PAN Genxing Chief professor in soil science,director of Institute of Resource,Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture,and the Center of Biomass and Biochar in Agriculture,Nanjing Agricultural University.Prof.Pan's research interests cover soil organic matter and soil carbon sequestration,greenhouse gas mitigation and carbon management in agriculture,biochar science and technology.He also served as the Chair of fourth,fifth,and sixth Subject Evaluation Group of the Academic Degree Committee of the State Council,chief edited the Wetland,supplement to the Fifth Assessment Report on Greenhouse Gas List by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),adjunct member of National Wetland S&T Committee and Academic Committee of Sate Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry.He has been actively involved in exchange and cooperation activities under IPCC,United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),and UN Environment Programme (UNEP) as well as China's national panels on climate change.E-mail:pangenxing@aliyun.com
微信关注公众号