丁维新,周凌云,朱安宁,马东豪,信秀丽.土壤学理论和技术创新促进区域农业持续发展和地方经济建设[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(12):1401-1408.

土壤学理论和技术创新促进区域农业持续发展和地方经济建设

Theory and Technique Innovation in Soil Science Promoted Sustainable Development of Agriculture and Local Economy in Huanghuaihai Plain
作者
丁维新
中国科学院南京土壤研究所 封丘农业生态实验站 南京 210008
Ding Weixin
Fengqiu Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
周凌云
中国科学院南京土壤研究所 封丘农业生态实验站 南京 210008
Zhou Lingyun
Fengqiu Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
朱安宁
中国科学院南京土壤研究所 封丘农业生态实验站 南京 210008
Zhu Anning
Fengqiu Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
马东豪
中国科学院南京土壤研究所 封丘农业生态实验站 南京 210008
Ma Donghao
Fengqiu Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
信秀丽
中国科学院南京土壤研究所 封丘农业生态实验站 南京 210008
Xin Xiuli
Fengqiu Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
中文关键词
         土壤学理论技术创新;黄淮海平原;土壤地力;中低产田改良技术;作物高效栽培技术
英文关键词
        theory and technique innovation in soil science;huanghuaihai plain;soil fertility;improvement of medium-and low-yield field;high-yield crop production technique
中文摘要
        黄淮海地区是我国第二大平原,在国家粮食安全和国民经济发展中有不可替代的战略地位。黄淮海平原主要由黄河、淮河、海河等多沙性河流冲积而成,历史上长期面临旱、涝、盐碱、风沙等农业生产问题。在此背景下,以中科院南京土壤所熊毅院士为首的研究队伍,于1963年进驻黄淮海平原,创建了"井灌井排"治理盐碱的核心技术。20世纪80年代初,以中科院南京土壤所为主的研究队伍再次会聚封丘,开展治理旱涝灾害和改良低产土壤工作,并由此建立了中科院封丘农业生态实验站(简称"封丘站")。自建站以来,尤其是近10年来,在国家科技部、国家自然科学基金委、农业部和中科院等大力支持下,以封丘站为野外基地,国内科研人员联合开展了系统研究和技术研发,取得了一系列研究成果。在基础理论研究方面,揭示了潮土障碍形成机制和土壤质量演变规律,解析了土壤有机质的周转规律和土壤结构的形成机制,提出了土壤地力定向培育的对策;在技术研发和应用方面,创建了土壤地力培育和大面积均衡增产栽培技术,并在河南省20多个粮食生产重点县示范推广。通过与地方政府和企业合作,研发了道地金银花和树莓规范化、标准化高效栽培技术,建立了"企业+科研+基地+农户"的发展模式,为国家粮食安全保障体系建设和地方经济发展做出了重要的贡献。
英文摘要
        The Huanghuaihai Plain is one of the three greatest plains in China, and occupies an irreplaceable strategic position in the national food security and national economic development. Huanghuaihai Plain is mainly alluvial by the Yellow River, Huaihe River, and Haihe River, and was confronted with the problems of drought, flood, salinity, sand drift, and other obstacles in agricultural production. In order to solve above problems, the research team led by academician Xiong Yi in the Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), set up the research base in Fengqiu County, Henan Province in 1963, and created a core technology for minimizing salinity in saline soil, which was known as "well irrigation and well drainage". In the early 1980s, the new research team, which primarily consisted of the scientists in the Institute of Soil Science, CAS, again gathered in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, to carry out the treatment of drought and flood barriers and to improve soil fertility. During that time, the Fengqiu Agro-Ecological Experimental Station was established by the Institute of Soil Sciences, CAS. Since then, especially in the past decade, scientists have made series of research progresses in soil science and crop production under the financial support by the Ministry of Science and Technology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Ministry of Agriculture, and CAS. The formation mechanism of soil obstacles and evolution process of soil quality were revealed. The turnover and accumulation characteristics of soil organic matter and formation of soil structure were evaluated. The countermeasures for improving medium-and low-yield farmlands were put forward. Meanwhile, a new generation of controlling techniques for increasing soil fertility and improving medium-and low-yield fields were developed, aiming at the settlement of thorny problems. These techniques were demonstrated and extended in 0.97 million ha of medium-and low-yield fields, with the tremendous benefits in grain production increase. In cooperation with local governments and enterprises, the standardization cultivation techniques of authentic honeysuckle and raspberry or blackberry were developed, and the combination mode of "enterprises plus scientists plus research base plus farmers" was created, which drastically increased profits of both enterprises and farmers. In summary, scientists in the Fengqiu Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, CAS, has made great contribution to the construction of national food security system and local economic development in the past three decades.
作者简介
丁维新 中科院南京土壤所研究员,封丘农业生态实验站站长。国家自然科学基金委杰出青年基金获得者,中科院"百人计划"入选者和引进国外杰出人才,全国百篇优秀博士学位论文奖和中科院优秀博士学位论文奖获得者,国家自然科学奖二等奖和国家科技进步奖二等奖获得者。主要研究领域包括土壤有机碳转化和累积机制,土壤含氮气体产生和保氮机理,湿地生态系统甲烷产生、氧化和排放机制,畜禽粪污肥料化和农田消纳技术等。参编专著3部,发表SCI论文81篇。E-mail:wxding@issas.ac.cn
Ding Weixin Professor in the Institute of Soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),and head of Fengqiu Agro-Ecological Experimental Station.He is a winner of National Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars from National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2007,and "Hundred Talents Project" of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2006.He is also the recipient of secondclass prize of National Natural Science Award in 2008 and National Science and Technology Progress Award in 2014.His Ph.D.dissertation was awarded with "National Top-hundred Best Dissertation in China" in 2005 and Best Dissertation in Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2004.His research field includes mechanism of soil organic carbon turn over and accumulation,the microbial processes of nitrogenous gas production,and inorganic nitrogen converted to organic nitrogen in soil,methane production,oxidation,and emission in wetland ecosystem,livestock effluent processing and use in agro-ecosystem,etc.He has published 81 SCI papers and co-authored 3 books.E-mail:wxding@issas.ac.cn
微信关注公众号