赵林,吴通华,谢昌卫,李韧,吴晓东,姚济敏,岳广阳,肖瑶.多年冻土调查和监测为青藏高原地球科学研究、环境保护和工程建设提供科学支撑[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(10):1159-1168.

多年冻土调查和监测为青藏高原地球科学研究、环境保护和工程建设提供科学支撑

Support Geoscience Research, Environmental Management, and Engineering Construction with Investigation and Monitoring on Permafrost in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
作者
赵林
中国科学院西北生态环境与资源研究院 青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站 格尔木 816000
Zhao Lin
The Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Golmud 816000, China
吴通华
中国科学院西北生态环境与资源研究院 青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站 格尔木 816000
Wu Tonghua
The Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Golmud 816000, China
谢昌卫
中国科学院西北生态环境与资源研究院 青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站 格尔木 816000
Xie Changwei
The Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Golmud 816000, China
李韧
中国科学院西北生态环境与资源研究院 青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站 格尔木 816000
Li Ren
The Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Golmud 816000, China
吴晓东
中国科学院西北生态环境与资源研究院 青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站 格尔木 816000
Wu Xiaodong
The Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Golmud 816000, China
姚济敏
中国科学院西北生态环境与资源研究院 青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站 格尔木 816000
Yao Jimin
The Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Golmud 816000, China
岳广阳
中国科学院西北生态环境与资源研究院 青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站 格尔木 816000
Yue Guangyang
The Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Golmud 816000, China
肖瑶
中国科学院西北生态环境与资源研究院 青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站 格尔木 816000
Xiao Yao
The Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Golmud 816000, China
中文关键词
         青藏高原;多年冻土;调查;监测;地下冰;碳循环
英文关键词
        Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP);permafrost;investigation;monitoring;ground ice;carbon cycle
中文摘要
        随着我国西部大开发战略的实施和气候变暖对青藏高原影响的日益显著,多年冻土变化对生态、水文、气候和工程建设的影响日渐突出,多年冻土的长期定位监测和大范围野外调查已经成为冰冻圈、生态、水文、气候和寒区工程建设等方面深化研究和解决重大科学和工程问题的重大需求。中科院青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站(简称"高原冰冻圈站")自建站以来对青藏高原多年冻土进行了长期连续的监测和大范围的野外调查,开展了多年冻土水热状况的变化机理、模型模拟和生态效应综合研究。特别是近年来在科技部、国家自然科学基金委和中科院等重大项目支持下,高原冰冻圈站积极开展国内外科研合作,规范了多年冻土野外考察和定位监测的方法,建成了在国际上处于领先地位的多年冻土综合监测网络;系统地开展了高原多年冻土分布、温度、厚度和地下冰空间分异规律的定量研究,基于多源数据和多模式比对,发布了空间分辨率为1 km的高原多年冻土温度、厚度和地下冰的空间格网数据。基于长期监测数据,构建和改进了适合于青藏高原多年冻土的一维热传导模式和陆面过程模式,定量评价了过去30年来高原尺度多年冻土的变化及物理机制。这些科研成果不仅为青藏铁路建设、三江源国家公园生态保护、区域气候模拟等问题的解决提供了强有力的基础数据支撑,同时也面向国家需求和国家重大项目研究,推动决策咨询服务。有关青藏高原多年冻土区植被、生态和土壤有机碳氮空间分布的研究成果,填补了该领域的国际空白,为未来地球国际科学研究计划和地球系统模式发展提供了最为基础的本底数据支撑。
英文摘要
        Due to the climate warming and the implementation of China's western development strategy, the variation in permafrost has increasingly and significantly influenced the ecology, hydrology, climate, and engineering construction on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) during the past decades. Long-term in-situ monitoring and large-scale field investigation on permafrost have become a major demand for addressing key scientific and engineering issues in the cryosphere, ecology, hydrology, climate, and engineering construction in cold regions. Since the Cryosphere Research Station on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau of Chinese Academy of Sciences was established in 1987, we have conducted long-term continuous monitoring and large-scale field investigations on permafrost of the QTP, and thus synthetically studied the mechanisms of the change in hydrothermal conditions of permafrost and their simulations and ecological effects. Under the support of major programs funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, we carried out many international cooperations actively and standardized the approaches of in-situ monitoring and field investigation on permafrost, and thus established the monitoring network of permafrost which is in the leading position around the world. We also quantitatively studied the spatial distribution, ground temperatures, thickness, and ground ice of permafrost on the QTP. By comparing the multi-source dataset and multi-models, we released the spatial grid dataset of ground temperatures, thickness, and ground ice of permafrost on the QTP with a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. Furthermore, based on the long-term monitoring dataset, we developed and improved the one-dimensional model of heat conduction and land-surface-process model for applying to the Tibetan permafrost, and thereby quantitatively estimated the variation of permafrost and its physical mechanisms on the QTP during the last three decades. Those results not only provide a basic-data support for the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, the environmental protection of the Three-River Source national park, and the regional simulation of climate but also promote decision-making services for national demands and major scientific programs. Moreover, the spatial distributions of vegetation types, soil types, and soil organic carbon and nitrogen in the permafrost regions of the QTP also fill the gaps in those aspects and provide the basic-data support for the global research programs of the future Earth and the development of the Earth system models.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2017.10.015
作者简介
赵林 中科院西北生态环境与资源院(筹)研究员,中科院青藏高原冰冻圈观测研究站(藏北高原冰冻圈国家野外科学观测研究站)站长、冰冻圈与全球变化研究室副主任,中国地理学会冰川冻土分会理事、冰冻圈学会理事、"青藏高原研究会"常务理事、"第四纪研究会"理事。发表论文130余篇,其中SCI收录刊物60余篇,作为主笔完成专著2部;参与编写专著5部。政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)第四、五次评估报告第一工作组贡献作者,获"中国最美野外科技人员"称号。曾主持国家自然科学基金委员会重点、面上项目,科技部国家科技基础条件平台项目,科技部基础性工作专项项目,科技部国家基础研究重大项目课题,以及中科院重点项目等。主要学术贡献:构建了青藏高原多年冻土监测网;查明了青藏高原多年冻土、地下冰、土壤和植被及土壤有机碳、氮的空间分布规律,完成了多年冻土空间数据库建设;揭示了中亚高海拔多年冻土的空间变化规律;阐明了冻融过程中活动层水热耦合过程、土壤碳氮生物地球化学过程及其主要物理机制;基于陆面过程模式和多年冻土模式,预估了气候变化背景下青藏高原多年冻土的变化及其气候效应。E-mail:linzhao@lzb.ac.cn
Zhao Lin Research Professor of the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS);director of the Cryosphere Research Station on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau,CAS;deputy director of the Research Laboratory of Cryosphere and Global Change,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,CAS;board of directors at the Chinese Society of Glaciology and Geocryology,the Chinese Society of Cryosphere Science,the China Society on Tibet Plateau,and the Chinese Association for Quaternary Research.He has more than 130 scientific publications,including approximate 60 journal papers indexed by the SCI and 7 monographs or book chapters.He was a contributor author of the Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth and Fifth Assessment Reports,and was awarded the national outstanding field-scientific and technological workers,the Ministry of Science and Technology.His major contributions include:establishing the monitoring network of permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP),ascertaining the spatial distributions of permafrost,ground ice,soil types,vegetation types,soil organic carbon,and soil total nitrogen on the QTP,building the spatial database of permafrost on the QTP,revealing the spatial variation of permafrost in the high-altitude regions of the central Asia,elucidating the hydrothermal coupling and biogeochemical processes of the active layer thickness during the freezing and thawing processes and their physical mechanisms,and predicting the variation of the QTP permafrost and its potential feedback to climate change based on the land-surface-process models and permafrost models.These key findings were founded by the State Key Programs and General Projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,the Special Program for Key Basic Research of the Ministry of Science and Technology,China,the National Key Basic Research of the Ministry of Science and Technology,China,the Key Program of CAS,and the National R&D Infrastructure and Facility Development Program of China.E-mail:linzhao@lzb.ac.cn
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