刘荣高,刘洋,徐新良,葛全胜.近30年青藏高原南缘地理环境状况及变迁研究[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(9):1003-1013.

近30年青藏高原南缘地理环境状况及变迁研究

Change of Geographical Environment in Southern Margin of Tibetan Plateau since 1980s
作者
刘荣高
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京 100101
Liu Ronggao
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
刘洋
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京 100101
Liu Yang
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
徐新良
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京 100101
Xu Xinliang
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
葛全胜
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京 100101
Ge Quansheng
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
中文关键词
         青藏高原;南缘;气候;地表特征;人类活动;变迁
英文关键词
        Tibetan Plateau;southern margin;climate;land surface conditions;human activity;changes
中文摘要
        青藏高原南缘位于青藏高原与南亚次大陆的过渡地带,是西风带、南亚季风的交汇区域,对于气候和环境变化十分敏感。文章综合利用卫星遥感和地面观测等手段,分析了20世纪80年代以来青藏高原南缘的土地利用/覆盖、植被、降水、温度、人口和夜间灯光等自然和人文地理环境状况及其变迁。结果表明,青藏高原南缘土地利用覆盖以森林为主(48.62%);植被主要分布在喜马拉雅山南麓山区和东部,东部植被状况明显好于中西部;区域降水集中在每年6—9月南亚夏季风时段,呈南多北少、东多西少之势;气温北低南高,空间差异大;除南部边缘外,人口密度整体偏低,夜间灯光覆盖率2013年仅为10%左右。近30年来,青藏高原南缘区域环境发生了显著变化。在自然环境方面,区域内气温显著升高,高海拔区域、夜间的温度升高更快;中东部降水显著减少,西部部分区域降水增加;在气温和降水变化影响下,中西部植被最大叶面积指数(leaf area index,LAI)普遍增大,东部则略有减小。人文环境方面,近年来区域中南部人类活动有所加强,区域内居民点增多,中部和南部的印度、尼泊尔境内人口密度增大; 1992—2013年夜间灯光覆盖面积扩张了2.5倍,其中85%以上的扩张区域位于印度境内。
英文摘要
        The southern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is located in a transitional zone between the plateau and the South Asia Sub-continent. It is also an intersectional region of the westerlies and the South Asia Summer Monsoon (SASM). This region is quite sensitive to the changes of global climate system and regional environment. Combined with satellite remote sensing and field observations, the inter-annual variability of natural and human geography conditions of the margin have been investigated. The results show that this region is covered mainly by forest (48.62%). The vegetation is mainly distributed in southern edge of the Himalayas and the eastern part of the region, with vegetation cover higher in eastern than in mid-western region. The precipitation is higher in the east than in the west and most of them occur in June to September. The population is quite scarce except for the southern edge. In recent 30 years, local environments present remarkable changes. In the natural environment, regional temperature rose especially at the higher altitude and during the nighttime, while precipitation rose in some western parts and decreased significantly in middle and eastern parts of the region. Due to the changes of temperature and precipitation, maximal leaf area index increases in the middle west while it is decreased in eastern part. In the cultural environment, the residential areas and population density increased in recent years, especially in middle-southern part in India and Nepal. The coverage of night light area has extended 2.5 times from 1992 to 2013, while more than 85% extended light area is located in India.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2017.09.010
作者简介
刘荣高, 中科院地理科学与资源所研究员,博士生导师。中科院资源环境科学数据中心主任、资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室副主任,中国自然资源学会常务理事暨自然资源信息系统研究专业委员会主任。主要研究领域包括:全球遥感参数产品、资源环境遥感分析以及定量遥感反演关键基础问题。E-mail:liurg@igsnrr.ac.cn
Liu Ronggao, Received his B.S. degree from Chengdu College of Geology, China, in 1993, and the M.S. degree and Ph.D. from Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, in 1996 and 2000, respectively. He is currently a professor with the Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the director of Data Center for Resources and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interests cover algorithms for parameters retrieval and development of processing system for global long-term remote sensing data. E-mail:liurg@igsnrr.ac.cn
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