邓涛,王晓鸣,李强,吴飞翔.青藏高原:从热带动植物乐土到冰期动物群摇篮[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(9):959-966.

青藏高原:从热带动植物乐土到冰期动物群摇篮

Tibetan Plateau: From Paradise of Tropical Animals and Plants to Cradle of Ice Age Mammalian Fauna
作者
邓涛
中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所 中国科学院脊椎动物演化与人类起源重点实验室 北京 100044;中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心 北京 100101
Deng Tao
Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China;Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
王晓鸣
中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所 中国科学院脊椎动物演化与人类起源重点实验室 北京 100044;美国洛杉矶自然历史博物馆 洛杉矶 CA 90007
Wang Xiaoming
Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China;Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, CA 90007, USA
李强
中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所 中国科学院脊椎动物演化与人类起源重点实验室 北京 100044;中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心 北京 100101
Li Qiang
Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China;Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
吴飞翔
中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所 中国科学院脊椎动物演化与人类起源重点实验室 北京 100044
Wu Feixiang
Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
中文关键词
         青藏高原;古高度;热带;冰期;生物群
英文关键词
        Tibetan Plateau;paleo-elevation;tropical;Ice Age;fauna
中文摘要
        在我国藏北渐新世地层中发现了攀鲈和鲃类新属种,其现生近缘类型都生活在亚洲和非洲的热带地区。这不仅在鱼类的系统发育和动物地理上具有重要意义,并且表明青藏高原腹地在距今26 Ma前仍然为温暖湿润的低地,伴生的棕榈、菖蒲等植物化石也指示同样的环境,说明当时由印度洋来的暖湿气流至少可以深入到藏北地区。自那时起,高原内部的地理特征与自然环境经历了巨大的变化。青藏高原在中新世持续隆升,至上新世达到现代高度,形成冰冻圈环境。在札达盆地的上新世沉积中发现了披毛犀、雪豹、北极狐和盘羊的祖先类型,显示适应严寒环境的第四纪冰期动物群起源于青藏高原,由此提出和进一步完善了寒冷适应性动物起源与扩散的“走出西藏”理论。
英文摘要
        New genera and species of the climbing perch and cyprinine fish were discovered from the Oligocene strata in northern Tibet. On the other hand, all their extant close relatives live in the tropical regions of Asia and Africa. These discoveries not only are significant for the phylogeny and zoogeography of fishes, but also imply that the hinterland of the Tibet area was a warm and humid lowland at 26 Ma as suggested by the co-existing plant assemblage including palms and golden rain trees among others, indicating that the warm and humid air current of the Indian Ocean could flow deeply into northern Tibet at least. Since that time, the geographical features and natural environments within the Tibetan Plateau have greatly changed. The Tibetan Plateau was consistently uplifted in the Miocene, and then reached its modern elevation in the Pliocene so that a cryosphere environment appeared. The ancestor forms of the woolly rhino, snow leopard, arctic fox, and bighorn sheep were discovered from the Pliocene deposits in the Zanda Basin, which showed that the frigid-adapted Quaternary Ice Age fauna originated in the Tibetan Plateau. As a result, the Out of Tibet theory about the origin and expansion of cold-tolerated mammals were proposed and further improved.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2017.09.005
作者简介
邓涛,中科院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所副所长、研究员,长期从事奇蹄类哺乳动物演化、新近纪陆相地层对比和晚新生代环境演变研究。他率领的团队在青藏高原及其周边地区发现的丰富脊椎动物化石证实高原自早中新世晚期开始显著隆升,所提出的"走出西藏"理论揭示青藏高原札达盆地的上新世哺乳动物群肇始了第四纪冰期动物群的寒冷适应性谱系,并证明青藏高原在该时期达到了现代高度。E-mail:dengtao@ivpp.ac.cn
Deng Tao,Deputy director and research professor of Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has long-term research interests to focus on the evolution of perissodactyl mammals, the Neogene terrestrial stratigraphy, and the late Cenozoic environmental changes. He and his team discovered rich vertebrate fossils from the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas to imply a high plateau since the late Early Miocene. Their "Out of Tibet" theory has revealed that the Pliocene mammalian fauna of the Zanda Basin in the Tibetan Plateau showed initiation of cold-adapted lineages that predate Ice Age megafauna, which indicated that the Tibetan Plateau reached its modern elevation. E-mail:dengtao@ivpp.ac.cn
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