白永飞,王扬.长期生态学研究和试验示范为草原生态保护和草牧业可持续发展提供科技支撑[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(8):910-916.

长期生态学研究和试验示范为草原生态保护和草牧业可持续发展提供科技支撑

Long-term Ecological Research and Demonstrations Support Protection and Sustainable Management of Grassland Ecosystems
作者
白永飞
中国科学院植物研究所 植被与环境变化国家重点实验室 北京 100093
Bai Yongfei
State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
王扬
中国科学院植物研究所 植被与环境变化国家重点实验室 北京 100093
Wang Yang
State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
中文关键词
         补偿效应;化学计量内稳性;人工草地;物种配置;草地管理
英文关键词
        compensatory interactions;stoichiometric homoeostasis;cultivated pastures;forage species disposition;grassland management
中文摘要
        长期以来,我国在畜牧业生产中过度利用草地的生产功能,忽视其生态功能,造成草地大面积退化,草–畜关系失衡,传统草原畜牧业难以为继,亟须探索适宜于牧区特点的生态保护与草牧业发展新模式,依靠科技创新推动草牧业发展。中科院内蒙古草原生态系统定位研究站(以下简称“内蒙古站”)自建站以来,立足于我国温带草原,长期开展草原生态系统水、土、气、生等要素监测,草原生态学基础研究,以及退化草地恢复、人工草地建设和生态系统管理等方面的应用研究,并通过示范推广为内蒙古草原的保护和可持续利用提供科技支撑。基于长期监测、养分添加和放牧控制试验,揭示了内蒙古草原生物多样性和生态系统稳定性的维持机制,主要发现:(1)不同物种和功能群之间的补偿效应是生态系统稳定性维持的重要机制;(2)物种和群落水平的化学计量内稳性是生态系统稳定性维持的基础,由化学计量内稳性高的物种占优势的群落,具有更高的生产力和稳定性;(3)混合利用方式(放牧和打草轮换)有利于多样性、生产力和生态系统稳定性的维持。基于以上基础研究和长期试验示范,内蒙古草原站研发了多年生混播人工草地的草种配置及高效人工草地建植技术体系。该体系提高了多年生人工草地的生产力和稳定性,延长了人工草地的利用年限,提高了牧草品质。为了进一步探索适宜于牧区特点的生态保护与草业发展新模式,内蒙古站提出了草地生产功能与生态功能合理配置技术体系。该体系通过建设高效人工草地和基本草牧场,解决饲草的生产问题,同时通过退化草地恢复和天然草地合理利用,提升草地的生态功能。这些研究成果不仅使我国的草地生态学研究达到国际先进水平,也使得内蒙古站成为草原科技成果转化的基地和开展国内外合作研究的重要平台。
英文摘要
        The grassland ecosystems in China have experienced widespread deterioration in functioning and services during the last few decades, caused primarily by overusing the production functions of grasslands at the cost of their ecological functions. Therefore, it is urgently needed to develop a new paradigm for ecological restoration and sustainable grassland husbandry based on basic research and demonstrations in grassland science. Since the establishment in 1979, the research at Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station (IMGERS) of Chinese Academy of Sciences focuses on long-term monitoring of key biotic and abiotic factors driving ecosystem processes in temperate grasslands; researches on structure and functions of grasslands, biodiversity-ecosystem stability relationship, and responses and feedbacks of grassland ecosystems to global climate changes; development of practical techniques for restoration of degraded grasslands, establishment of cultivated pastures, and sustainable management of natural grasslands. The main findings include:(1) compensatory interactions among major components at both species and functional group levels are important mechanisms contributing to ecosystem stability; (2) stoichiometric homoeostasis at both species and community levels is an important process maintaining ecosystem stability, indicating that communities dominated by homoeostatic species tend to have high productivity and high stability; (3) mixed management systems (grazing and haymaking rotate annually) can mitigate grazing-induced biodiversity loss, promote the primary productivity and stability, and thereby provide an important contribution to sustainable land-use of grasslands. Based on the findings from basic research and demonstrations, IMGERS developed a series of effective techniques for forage species disposition and establishment of perennial mixed sowing pastures, which increased productivity and stability, extended productive life, and improved forage quality of the cultivated pastures. IMGERS also proposed a new paradigm for optimizing production functions and ecological functions in grassland ecosystems. The new paradigm include two main principles:(1) optimizing the production functions through establishment of productive cultivated pastures and prime pastures; (2) improving ecological functions through restoration of degraded grasslands and sustainable utilization of natural grasslands. These research activities support IMGERS as a frontier in grassland research, a base for translating scientific knowledge of basic research into practice of grassland management, and a platform for international collaborations.
作者简介
白永飞 中科院植物所研究员、博士生导师,中国科学院大学岗位教授,中科院内蒙古草原生态系统定位研究站站长。1966年10月出生。1998年在内蒙古农业大学获得博士学位,1998至2000年在中科院植物所从事博士后研究,2000年留所工作,2004-2006年赴美国亚利桑那州立大学开展合作研究。2008年国家杰出青年科学基金获得者,2010年入选中国科学院"百人计划",2011年入选内蒙古自治区"草原英才",2014年入选国家百千万人才工程国家级人选。近年来,主持和承担国家重点研发计划项目课题、国家重点基础研究发展计划("973")项目课题、中科院战略性先导科技专项课题、自然科学基金重点和面上项目等10余项,共发表各类研究论文140余篇,其中SCI论文90余篇。目前担任中国植物学会植物生态学专业委员会主任、中国生态学会长期生态学研究专业委员会副主任,先后担任Rangeland Ecology&Management副主编(2009-2011年)、《植物生态学报》副主编(2009-2014年)、《植物学报》副主编(2015至今),以及Journal of Arid Environments、《科学通报》《植物生态学报》《生态学报》《生物多样性》《植物科学学报》《生命世界》编委等学术兼职。E-mail:yfbai@ibcas.ac.cn
Bai Yongfei Principle Investigator and Ph.D.supervisor of Institute of Botany,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),and Professor of the University of CAS.He is the director of the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station,CAS.He received his Ph.D.from Inner Mongolia Agriculture University in 1998,pursued postdoctoral training in Institute of Botany from 1998 to 2000,and then worked as a Visiting Research Fellow at School of Life Sciences,Arizona State University from 2004 to 2006.Prof.Bai is recognized by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) as a distinguished young scholar,the"One Hundred Talents Program "of CAS,and a national member of the" New Century Hundreds and Thousands of Talents Project".He is also the President of the plant ecology branch of the Chinese Society for Plant Sciences.His main research areas include:relationships between plant functional traits,functional diversity,and multiple ecosystem functions;sensitivity,mitigation,and adaptation of ecosystem services to global change drivers;and adaptive management of grassland ecosystems.He has published more than 140 papers in peer reviewed journals,such as Nature,Ecology,Journal of Ecology,and Global Change Biology.E-mail:yfbai@ibcas.ac.cn
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