戈峰,欧阳芳,门兴元.区域性农田景观对昆虫的生态学效应与展望[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(8):830-835.

区域性农田景观对昆虫的生态学效应与展望

Ecological Effects of Regional Agricultural Landscape on Insect and Its Prospect
作者
戈峰
中国科学院动物研究所 农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室 北京 100101
Ge Feng
State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
欧阳芳
中国科学院动物研究所 农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室 北京 100101;美国加州大学伯克利分校 自然资源学院环境科学与政策管理系和伯克利数据科学研究所 伯克利 94720
Ouyang Fang
State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, College of Natural Resources and Berkeley Institute for Data Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
门兴元
山东省农业科学院 植物保护研究所 济南 250100
Men Xinyuan
Institute of Plant Protection, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China
中文关键词
         区域性农田景观;生态调控;多元化农田景观;景观格局特征;人类活动
英文关键词
        regional agricultural landscape;ecological regulation and control;biologically-diversified landscape ecosystems;landscape pattern characteristics;human activities
中文摘要
        有害生物的生态调控一直是作物病虫害预防与治理的重要前沿科技领域。目前有害生物生态调控研究已由单一的农田拓展到区域性农田景观的空间范围。研究区域性农田景观中格局特征和人类活动对病虫害和天敌种群动态影响,不仅在病虫害生物防治的实践中有重要意义,而且对于揭示人类活动对生物多样性结构与功能的影响,阐明区域性农田景观中生物多样性整合、维持机理有重大的理论意义。作物病虫害的导向性防控——生物间信息流与行为操纵,最终需要体现和落实在特定的地理区域空间范围内,参与到粮食作物生产与病虫害生态管理活动过程中。文章主要阐述区域性农田景观中格局特征与人类种植活动对昆虫的生态学效应,并提出构建基于区域性农田景观多元化的有害生物生态调控体系。
英文摘要
        Ecological regulation and control of pests are always important frontier areas in science and technology for prevention and management of crop diseases and insect pests. The research system on ecological regulation and control of pests is developing from a single agroecosystem to regional agricultural landscape ecosystem. Researching the effects of landscape pattern characteristics and human activities in regional agricultural landscape ecosystem on crop diseases and insect pests, and their natural enemies has a great significance for prevention and management of pests. It also benefits to explore the influence of human activities on structure and functions of biodiversity and to elucidate the mechanisms of integrated function, maintenance, and regulation of biodiversity. Orientation prevention and management of crop diseases and insect pests based on information flow and behaviour manipulation among organisms are not only fundamental researches but also an important part of agricultural production activities. They can work and function for food crops production and ecological management activities of pests in regional agricultural landscape ecosystem. Here we mainly elaborate ecological effects of landscape pattern characteristics and human activities in regional agricultural landscape ecosystem on insect pests and their natural enemies. And then we propose a strategy system of ecological regulation and control of pests based on biologically-diversified landscape ecosystems at regional scale.
作者简介
戈峰 中科院动物所研究员,农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室主任,兼任中国昆虫学会副理事长、农业昆虫专业委员会主任、《应用昆虫学报》主编,以及Insect Science,Scientific Reports编委。主要从事全球变化下昆虫生态学及其害虫生态调控研究。已研究了华北农区棉花、小麦、玉米等农田景观中害虫、天敌发生动态,建立了昆虫生态能学方法、稳定同位素方法和基于"双圆"的土壤昆虫定量调查方法,解析了不同播种期、套间作、作物多样化等对天敌控害功能的影响;分析了大气CO2浓度升高下"作物-害虫-天敌"互作关系。已发表学术论文280余篇。其中,以第一作者或通讯作者在Global Change Biology,New Physiologist,Methods in Ecology and EvolutionSCI刊物发表论文110多篇。主编《现代生态学》和《昆虫生态学理论与方法》。有关《棉铃虫区域性生态调控研究》研究成果获1998年中科院科技进步奖二等奖。E-mail:gef@ioz.ac.cn
Ge Feng Professor at Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),director of the State Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management,vice president of The Entomological Society of China,director of Professional Committee of Agricultural Insects,editor-in-chief of Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology,editorial board member of Insect Science and Scientific Reports.His research mainly focuses on insect ecology and integrated pest management (IPM).He researched insect pests and their natural enemies in agricultural landscape system including cotton,wheat,and corn in North China.He established the analysis method of ecological energetic for quantitative evaluation of the biological control value of predatory insects,and developed a two-circle method (TCM) for simultaneously estimating densities of grounddwelling arthropods and the effective trapping radius.He also promoted the application of stable isotope analyses on quantitative evaluation of the biological control efficiency of predatory insects.He revealed the influence of crop sowing time,intercropping and crop diversity on biological control by natural enemy,and analyzed the interactions among "crops-insect pest-natural enemy" under elevated atmospheric CO2.More than 280 papers have been published in SCI indexed journals and Chinese journals,of which 110 papers are published with SCI indexed journal such as Global Change Biology,New Physiologist,Methods in Ecology and Evolution.His books include Insect Ecology Theory and Method and Modern Ecology.The research on ecological regulation and control of cotton bollworm at regional scale win a second prize of Science and Technology Progress Prize of CAS in 1988.E-mail:gef@ioz.ac.cn
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