钱韦,曲静,康乐.生物信息流操纵:作物病虫害导向性防控的新科学[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(8):805-813.

生物信息流操纵:作物病虫害导向性防控的新科学

Decoding Mechanisms of Bio-interactions for Targeted Management of Agricultural Pests
作者
钱韦
中国科学院微生物研究所 北京 100101
Qian Wei
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
曲静
中国科学院北京生命科学研究院 北京 100101
Qu Jing
Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
康乐
中国科学院北京生命科学研究院 北京 100101;中国科学院动物研究所 北京 100101
Kang Le
Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
中文关键词
         作物;病虫害;生物互作;防控
英文关键词
        crop;pathogens and insect pests;bio-interactions;pest control
中文摘要
        作物病虫害是威胁全世界农业生产的重大自然灾害。目前,病虫害防治的核心思想仍然是简单杀灭,主要依靠以病虫微生物的基础代谢、生理生化系统和神经受体为靶标的化学农药,过程中易导致人畜中毒、农产品污染和生态环境破坏等一系列严重的问题。下一代病虫害防治学术思想的重大突破将是对作物-昆虫-病原微生物生物间信息流及行为进行操纵。在基础研究方面,“生物间信息的识别、解码与操纵”也是现代生命科学的前沿与热点学科——生物间相互作用的分子机理一旦被阐明,往往带动通用生物技术的发展突破。例如RNA干扰(RNAi)现象、植物转化技术和TALEN基因组编辑技术等科学发现和技术进步,已经为整个生命科学领域作出了重大贡献。中科院“作物病虫害的导向性防控——生物间信息流与行为操纵”战略性先导科技专项(B类)集合了各学科的优势力量,系统地分析在作物重大病虫害发生过程中种间信息识别、解码、传递和控制的过程,从中解析关键可操纵节点,发展新一代病虫害田间行为操纵的新策略与新技术。该专项目前已经取得了系列重大研究成果,为竞争国际科学前沿地位、保障我国粮食生产安全作出了基础性、前瞻性的贡献。
英文摘要
        Pathogens and insect pests are the most formidable threats to sustainable crop production in China as well as the rest of the world. At present, the most common method of pest control is the use of chemical pesticides that target the basic metabolism, physiological and biochemical processes, and nerve receptors of pests and microbial organisms, leading to poisoning of humans and animals, agricultural pollution, and ecological damage. A great breakthrough in the next generation of pest control will be the artificial manipulation of bioinformation exchanges among crop, insect pests, and pathogenic microbial organisms. Decoding the molecular mechanisms of biointeractions is also one of the hot and frontier research areas in life sciences. The scientific discoveries and technological progress in this area, for example, the finding of RNAi phenomenon, discovery of immune receptor of eukaryotes, establishment of plant transformation technology and TALEN genome editing technology, have made paradigm shifts to the progress of entire life sciences. The strategic priority research project called Decoding the Mechanisms of Bio-interactions for Targeted Management of Agricultural Pests is the first and largest multi-disciplinary research program that sponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The project aims to decode the complex biological interaction mechanisms and to translate basic research knowledge to cutting-edge approaches for smarter pest and disease managements. Within just a short period of three years, this project has made great progress. A series of high impact papers were published and it produced creative approaches for pest control. These significant achievements elevate the level of China's insect and pathology sciences to a world-class and contribute to the crop protection from pest infections without compromising agricultural productivity and environmental health.
作者简介
钱韦 中科院微生物所研究员,植物基因组学国家重点实验室副主任,农业微生物与生物技术研究室副主任兼学术秘书。研究方向包括:双组分信号转导系统在致病过程中的控制功能、植物病原细菌识别寄主与环境的分子机制、和病原细菌快速进化的分子生物学基础。曾获选"中国科学院青年创新促进会"会员和中科院首届"卢嘉锡青年人才奖"。E-mail:qianw@im.ac.cn
Qian Wei Professor of Institute of Microbiology of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),deputy director of State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics,and deputy director of department of Agricultural Microbiology and Biotechnology,Institute of Microbiology,CAS.His research focuses on the signal integration and crosstalk of two-component signal transduction systems in Xanthomonas spp.,molecular basis of bacterial regulon evolution.He was elected as a member of The Youth Association for the Advancement of Creative Science in 2012 and awarded Lu JiaXi Distinguished Yong Scientist in 2008.E-mail:qianw@im.ac.cn
康乐 男,中科院院士,发展中国家科学院院士,中科院动物所研究员,我国著名生态学家和昆虫学家。现任河北大学校长、中科院动物所所长、中科院北京生命科学院院长、中国科学院大学生命科学院院长,中国科学院大学学位委员会副主任。长期从事生态基因组学研究,是国际上生态基因学研究的领衔科学家、国家"973"项目首席科学家和基金委创新团队学术带头人,也是国际上几个重要学术期刊的主编和编委。2008年被国际昆虫学会选举为执行理事,2009年获美国内布拉斯加大学荣誉科学博士,2011年获何梁何利生命科学与技术进步奖,2013年获美国昆虫学会颁发的杰出科学家奖,2015年获选美国昆虫学会会士和第八届"谈家桢生命科学奖"成就奖。E-mail:lkang@ioz.ac.cn
Kang Le Male,Professor of Institute of Zoology of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),member of Chinese Academy of Sciences,and member of The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) for the advancement of science in developing countries.He is also the president of Hebei University,director of Institute of Zoology,CAS,president of Beijing Institutes of Life Science,CAS,as well as the dean of Department of Life Sciences of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.He is a distinguished expert in entomology and ecological genomics and integrates multiple approaches from molecular biology,physiology to behavior to resolve the ecological questions in insect adaptation to environmental variation.His highlights of research accomplishments include clarification of molecular regulatory mechanisms of locust phase changes,tritrophic interactions,and cold tolerance of insects.His research achievements have been recognized by international entomological societies.In 2008 he was elected as a council member of International Congress of Entomology,and in 2009 he received an Honorary Doctoral Degree of Science from the University of Nebraska.He also received several important awards including the International Distinguished Scientist Award from the Entomological Society of America (ESA) in 2013 and the prestigious Life Science&Biotechnology Prize from Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation in 2011.He was elected as a fellow of ESA and won Tan's Achievement Award of Life Sciences in 2015.E-mail:lkang@ioz.ac.cn
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