崔保山,谢湉,王青,李姗泽,闫家国,于淑玲,刘康,郑京晶,刘泽正.大规模围填海对滨海湿地的影响与对策[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(4):418-425.

大规模围填海对滨海湿地的影响与对策

Impact of Large-scale Reclamation on Coastal Wetlands and Implications for Ecological Restoration, Compensation, and Sustainable Exploitation Framework
作者
崔保山
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Cui Baoshan
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
谢湉
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Xie Tian
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
王青
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Wang Qing
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
李姗泽
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Li Shanze
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
闫家国
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Yan Jiaguo
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
于淑玲
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Yu Shuling
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
刘康
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Liu Kang
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
郑京晶
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Zheng Jingjing
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
刘泽正
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Liu Zezheng
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
中文关键词
         滨海湿地;围填海;影响;生态修复;生态补偿;权衡
英文关键词
        coastal wetlands;coastal reclamation;impact;ecological restoration;eco-compensation;trade-off
中文摘要
        随着沿海地区经济的快速发展和人口增长压力的不断增大,围填海活动成为缓解滨海用地紧缺、促进滨海区域发展的重要方式。围填海活动在带来经济效益的同时,也对近岸资源和滨海湿地生态系统造成巨大的影响。滨海湿地是海陆之间交叉作用的过渡地带,对维持生物多样性和海陆动态平衡具有重要作用,为此,在分析我国大规模围填海特征的基础上,从滨海湿地格局、滨海湿地生物多样性的维持及生物分布结构等方面,分析和探讨围填海活动对滨海湿地生态系统结构、功能和过程的综合影响。提出“以网代点”“以缓代急”“以重代轻”和“以多代少”的修复对策,深化滨海湿地修复机理,强化生态修复实践;提出“两个大类,三个层次”的生态补偿模式,推进滨海湿地生态补偿的国家重要需求;权衡经济收益与生态损失,合理布局围填海空间,有力推进滨海湿地资源的可持续利用和生物多样性保护,实现不同利益群体的和谐发展。
英文摘要
        To meet the need of increasingly economic development and large populations with limited land resource, large scale of coastal reclamation was conducted as one of the most important resolution schemes. Driving by economic growth, coastal reclamation in China has proliferated and expanded nationwide. Various types of coastal reclamations are keeping rapid expansion rate in recent years. Nevertheless, behind the huge economic benefits, coastal reclamation exploitation has brought great loss of coastal natural resources and damaged coastal wetland ecosystem. As the transitional zone between ocean and terrestrial system, coastal wetlands play a crucial role in conserving biodiversity and maintaining dynamic balance of the land and sea. Here, we focused on the distributions of coastal wetlands and structures of coastal biodiversity based on a well exploring of pattern of large-scale coastal reclamation. In addition, we analyzed the multiple impacts of coastal reclamation to biological structures, processes, and function. We advocated "network", "long series", "large scale", and "functionoriented" ecological restoration strategies supporting by deep exploration ecological restoration mechanism and designed to build a robust restoration practice guideline. To promote national great strategic demand in eco-compensation, we made an advance in building an eco-compensation framework including two categories with three levels. The trade-off between the economic benefits and ecological loss was made during the research, and the outcomes show feasibility for sustainable exploitation of coastal resource and achieved the goal of biological conservation and development of coastal reclamation in harmony.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2017.04.013
作者简介
崔保山,北京师范大学环境学院院长、教授、博士,教育部"长江学者"特聘教授,国家"973"项目首席科学家,国家杰出青年科学基金获得者,全国优秀科技工作者,享受国务院政府特殊津贴。中国环境科学学会第八届理事会常务理事、中国环境科学学会地学分会主任、中国自然资源学会湿地专业委员会副主任、中国生态学学会湿地生态专业委员会副主任、中国水利学会水资源专业委员会委员、国家湿地科学技术专家委员会委员等。主要从事湖沼湿地生态过程和环境响应、流域生态系统管理等方面的研究,主持或完成国家"973"项目(课题)、国家自然科学基金重点项目、国家重大水专项、水利部重点项目等30余项。E-mail:cuibs@bnu.edu.cn
Cui Baoshan Professor of Environmental Science at the School of Environment,Beijing Normal University (BNU).He received his Ph.D. degree in Environmental Science from Northeast Institute of Geography,Chinese Academy of Sciences.He serves as Dean of the School of Environment,BNU,and chief scientist of National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program).He was elected as a chair professor of Changjiang Scholars sponsored by Ministry of Education.He was also awarded as a Distinguished Young Scientist by National Natural Science Foundation of China.He has been an investigator on over 30 scientific projects,and published 4 books and over 200 papers in peer-reviewed journals.His research interests include wetland restoration,wetland community ecology,wetland ecohydrology,wetland health and integrity assessment,and anthropogenic disturbances on wetlands.E-mail:cuibs@bnu.edu.cn
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