崔保山,谢湉,王青,李姗泽,闫家国,于淑玲,刘康,郑京晶,刘泽正.大规模围填海对滨海湿地的影响与对策[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(4):418-425.

大规模围填海对滨海湿地的影响与对策

Impact of Large-scale Reclamation on Coastal Wetlands and Implications for Ecological Restoration, Compensation, and Sustainable Exploitation Framework
作者
崔保山
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Cui Baoshan
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
谢湉
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Xie Tian
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
王青
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Wang Qing
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
李姗泽
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Li Shanze
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
闫家国
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Yan Jiaguo
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
于淑玲
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Yu Shuling
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
刘康
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Liu Kang
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
郑京晶
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Zheng Jingjing
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
刘泽正
北京师范大学环境学院 水环境模拟国家重点实验室 北京 100875
Liu Zezheng
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
中文关键词
         滨海湿地;围填海;影响;生态修复;生态补偿;权衡
英文关键词
        coastal wetlands;coastal reclamation;impact;ecological restoration;eco-compensation;trade-off
中文摘要
        随着沿海地区经济的快速发展和人口增长压力的不断增大,围填海活动成为缓解滨海用地紧缺、促进滨海区域发展的重要方式。围填海活动在带来经济效益的同时,也对近岸资源和滨海湿地生态系统造成巨大的影响。滨海湿地是海陆之间交叉作用的过渡地带,对维持生物多样性和海陆动态平衡具有重要作用,为此,在分析我国大规模围填海特征的基础上,从滨海湿地格局、滨海湿地生物多样性的维持及生物分布结构等方面,分析和探讨围填海活动对滨海湿地生态系统结构、功能和过程的综合影响。提出“以网代点”“以缓代急”“以重代轻”和“以多代少”的修复对策,深化滨海湿地修复机理,强化生态修复实践;提出“两个大类,三个层次”的生态补偿模式,推进滨海湿地生态补偿的国家重要需求;权衡经济收益与生态损失,合理布局围填海空间,有力推进滨海湿地资源的可持续利用和生物多样性保护,实现不同利益群体的和谐发展。
英文摘要
        To meet the need of increasingly economic development and large populations with limited land resource, large scale of coastal reclamation was conducted as one of the most important resolution schemes. Driving by economic growth, coastal reclamation in China has proliferated and expanded nationwide. Various types of coastal reclamations are keeping rapid expansion rate in recent years. Nevertheless, behind the huge economic benefits, coastal reclamation exploitation has brought great loss of coastal natural resources and damaged coastal wetland ecosystem. As the transitional zone between ocean and terrestrial system, coastal wetlands play a crucial role in conserving biodiversity and maintaining dynamic balance of the land and sea. Here, we focused on the distributions of coastal wetlands and structures of coastal biodiversity based on a well exploring of pattern of large-scale coastal reclamation. In addition, we analyzed the multiple impacts of coastal reclamation to biological structures, processes, and function. We advocated "network", "long series", "large scale", and "functionoriented" ecological restoration strategies supporting by deep exploration ecological restoration mechanism and designed to build a robust restoration practice guideline. To promote national great strategic demand in eco-compensation, we made an advance in building an eco-compensation framework including two categories with three levels. The trade-off between the economic benefits and ecological loss was made during the research, and the outcomes show feasibility for sustainable exploitation of coastal resource and achieved the goal of biological conservation and development of coastal reclamation in harmony.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2017.04.013
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