白洋,钱景美,周俭民,钱韦.农作物微生物组:跨越转化临界点的现代生物技术[J].中国科学院院刊,2017,(3):260-265.

农作物微生物组:跨越转化临界点的现代生物技术

Crop Microbiome: Breakthrough Technology for Agriculture
作者
白洋
中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
Bai Yang
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
钱景美
中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
Qian Jingmei
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
周俭民
中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
Zhou Jianmin
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
钱韦
中国科学院微生物研究所 北京 100101
Qian Wei
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101, China
中文关键词
         农作物微生物组;绿色农业;营养高效;抗病虫害;产业化
英文关键词
        crop microbiome;sustainable agriculture;nutrient use efficiency;disease and pest resistance;industry development
中文摘要
        在微生物组技术体系中,农作物微生物组具有较好的研究基础和广阔的应用前景,已经处于从基础研究成果向田间应用转化的关键时期。目前,该领域在农作物-微生物组-土壤环境之间的相互关系,益生菌及其功能基因对作物生长发育的影响,微生物组改善农作物氮、磷、铁等元素高效吸收,微生物组提高植物先天免疫反应和抗多种环境胁迫等方向取得了突破性的研究进展。发达国家和跨国农业公司在该领域持续加强投入,基于农作物微生物组研究的成熟产品迅速开拓市场,已成功应用于作物栽培和生产。相关技术在减少化学肥料和农药的使用、大幅提高农产品产量与品质方面展现出了巨大的应用前景。我国在农业可持续性发展方面存在农药肥料滥用、环境污染、病害威胁严重等重大问题,农作物微生物组学及相关技术的发展将为解决这些问题提供强有力的技术支撑。为此,我国亟待在农作物微生物组项目规划、人才队伍培养、创新价值链培育和产业化方面进行调整,促进农作物微生物组的研究和技术发展,为保障国家粮食安全和食品安全作出重大贡献。
英文摘要
        Plant microbiomics is an emerging research field that aims to solve scientific problems in plant-microbe interactions and facilitates the development of creative agricultural biotechnology. In recent years, achievements have been made in deciphering the relationships among crop-microbiome-soil, improving nutrition supply and plant development by microbes, and enhancing plant adaptive responses to defend multiple biotic or abiotic stresses. Developed by researchers and successfully applied in the field, microbiome-based biotechnologies have exhibited promising potential in agriculture by decreasing the usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and increasing the crop production. To reach to a sustainable agriculture, China has to reinforce the financial support to the projects of microbiomics and adjust its R & D policy to improve the translational research in the critical area.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2017.03.006
作者简介
白洋,中科院遗传与发育生物学所研究员、博士生导师。2005年毕业于武汉大学,2007年获得武汉大学植物发育生物学硕士学位,2010年在德国科隆大学获得植物发育生物学博士学位,2011-2015年博士后期间在德国马克斯普朗克植物育种研究所进行植物根系微生物组学的研究。2016年5月至今,任中科院遗传与发育生物学所研究员。2017年入选中组部"青年千人计划"。目前主要研究根系微生物组在植物抗病抗逆、营养高效等过程中的功能。E-mail:ybai@genetics.ac.cn
Bai Yang Principle Investigator in the institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology,Chinese Academy of Science (CAS).He received B.S.and M.S.degree at Wuhan University for plant developmental biology in 2005 and 2007 respectively.He achieved his Ph.D.at Cologne University in Germany in 2010.Then,he worked on plant root microbiome in Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research as a postdoc. He joined Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology,CAS,as Principal Investigator in 2016.He was elected into"Thousand Youth Talent Program"in 2017.He is mainly working on root microbiota's functions in plant disease resistance,stress tolerance and nutrient uptake. E-mail:ybai@genetics.ac.cn
钱韦,男,中科院微生物所研究员,博士生导师,植物基因组学国家重点实验室副主任。1994年毕业于云南大学生物系,1997年获云南大学生态学硕士学位,2000年获中科院植物所植物学博士学位,2000-2003年在中科院微生物所从事博士后研究。2003年至今,中科院微生物所助理研究员、副研究员、研究员。主要从事植物病原细菌致病分子机制的研究。E-mail:qianw@im.ac.cn
Qian Wei Male,Principal Investigator of the Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Science (CAS),and deputy-director of State Key Lab of Plant Genomics.Qian received his B.S.and M.S.degree from Department of Biology,Yunnan University,China in 1994 and 1997, and achieved his Ph.D in Institute of Botany,CAS,in 2000.He worked as a postdoc in the Institute of Microbiology,CAS,from 2000 to 2003. Since 2003,he has been working with Institute of Microbiology,CAS,as an assistant professor,associated professor and full professor.He mainly works on the mechanism of plant pathogen invasion.E-mail:qianw@im.ac.cn
微信关注公众号